Wool's unique properties, including providing great insulation even when wet,
have long made it a material of choice for outdoor clothing. Wool has been used
by man from early times. Explorers such as Ernest Shackleton, Edmund Hillary
and Roald Amundsen used layers of wool clothing to protect them under arduous
conditions during their journeys. We are pleased to offer a range of quality
woolens, from Qiviut Caps
to J.B. Field's Socks, from Devold's Islender Sweater to Filson's Double
Mackinaw Cruiser. We invite you to browse through our woolens, or read on
for more information about wool.
Wool is a natural insulator, grown by sheep and other animals. Sheep's wool
is the principle wool used by man and discussed here, although alpaca, camel,
goat, rabbit, possum and musk ox (qiviut) woolens are available.
Wool fibers consist of an inner core made of protein, which is covered by overlapping
scales. The protein core will absorb up to 30% of its weight in moisture without
becoming damp or clammy. The scales are hard, reducing wear on the fibers, and
repel liquid water. The fibers are strong and elastic, and are usually wavy,
or crimped. Wool also contains lanolin, a natural water-repellant grease. Wool
on the sheep, or its fleece, protects the animal from the wet and cold by first
turning away rain and water. The crimp of the wool produces insulating air spaces
within the fleece, which reduce the flow of heat. The air near the skin is kept
dry, and so a better insulator, by the core protein absorbing moisture from
this trapped air, and passing it towards the outside of the fleece. The elasticity
and strength of the fibers allow movement of the fleece without losing the air
spaces or breaking the fibers. The scales besides repelling liquid water, help
keep the fleece clean, since their outer ends all point in the direction away
from the skin, and so with the movement of the fleece tend to push any dirt
away from the skin.
Wool has a wide comfort range, essential for sheep and a unique and very helpful
feature in outdoor garments. This can be explained by the way perspiration is
removed from the skin layer and released from the outer surface of the wool.
Perspiration is released by the skin, and cools the skin as it is released.
When perspiration is absorbed by the wool fiber there is a heat of reaction
which counters the cooling effect at the skin level. Because of the temperature
gradient between the warm skin and the colder exterior of the wool garment,
the moisture from perspiration migrates towards the outer surface of the wool,
and there evaporates into the ambient air. The insulating value of the wool
fleece or fabric is determined largely by the pockets of air trapped within
the fabric. The amount of water vapor in the air within the wool fabric is a
function of the temperature and the amount of water in the fibers, and affects
the heat conductivity of this air. All else being equal, when the amount of
activity or the ambient temperature increases the body perspires more, the heat
conductivity of the air trapped in the wool fabric increases, and the insulating
value of the wool decreases. Thus wool clothing not only keeps the skin dry
and warm, but also adjusts its degree of insulation to some degree to suit the
amount of activity and external temperature.
Wool is not uniform among all sheep. Sheep live in a wide variety of climates
and conditions, and develop their wool to suit the conditions under which they
live. Further, sheep have been domesticated for many years, and domestic sheep
have been bred selectively to produce further variety in their wool. Today there
are coarse wools for carpets, soft fine wools for undergarments, highly crimped
wools for bulky woolen yarns, wools with very long fibers for strong fine worsted
yarns - a wide range from which the textile manufacturers can choose for a specific
Merino wool is a very long staple, very fine wool from the Merino sheep. Merino
sheep have been bred in Australia to produce extremely fine wool. The wool can
also be treated to make it fully washable and tumble dryable without losing
its great qualities.
Merino wool, particularly when twisted into a worsted yarn, is smooth to the
skin. The fine fibers are soft, and the long staple gives fewer ends, reducing
any irritation from loose ends.
Merino Wool Garments
Wool has long been used by people as clothing, blankets or furnishings, either
as fleece or separated from the skin and made into textiles. Additional properties
of wool enhance the value of wool in textiles. Wool is fire-resistant, and will
not support a flame, an important property in furnishings and some clothing.
It does not melt when heated, a significant factor in reducing the severity
of burns from fires. It has a low tendency to collect static electricity, reducing
stray electrostatic shocks, clinging of garments, and attraction of dust and
lint. Reactive proteins in the core take dye well, and hold the color. The scales
on the fibers diffuse the filtered light to yield softer colors.
Processing of wool for textiles has been well developed to take advantage of
the various properties of wool and the various types of wool available. At the
simplest level wool may be coarsely felted, as in the felt covers for yurts
in Mongolia. This felting is possible because of the wool fiber scales, which,
when separated from the skin and facing opposing directions, catch on to one
another, permitting the felting of wool into a strong mass of fibers held together
by the interlocking action of the scales. Wool may be spun into yarn from the
fleece and either knitted or woven into textiles as fisherman knits from Ireland
or Navajo blankets. Wool may be thoroughly cleaned and mixed so that the fibers
are not preferentially oriented relative to nearby fibers and then spun into
woolen yarn, that is a bulky yarn where the crimp of the fibers is developing
the maximum amount of insulating air space. Alternatively the yarn may be combed
before spinning in order to align the fibers together to form a dense worsted
yarn relatively low on air space. These yarns may be made of very fine soft
wool fibers or of thick stiff fibers.
The knitting or weaving processes are also versatile. Knitting can be tight
or loose, and can use thick or thin yarn. It can be simple, to form a relatively
flat surface, or fancy, to form a more textured surface, or it can be more complex
to form a layered fabric or other special effects. Weaving can be a simple over-one,
under-one weave, or complex to form special effects. Knitted or woven fabrics
can also be felted by working them in hot water, forming boiled wool in the
case of knitted fabrics, and mackinaw or melton cloth in the case of woven fabrics.
Thus between the different wools available and the range of processes for fabrication,
woolen textiles can be made to meet a great range of needs, and to provide characteristics
not found with other fibers.
Outdoor clothing has long made good use of the properties of wool and the various
and varied processes of fabrication. The wool garments we offer illustrate how
the properties and processes can be brought together to produce outstanding
The wool clothing we offer is made from new wool. New wool, or virgin wool,
comes directly from the sheep, and has not been previously processed into textiles.
The type or classification of wool is selected to suit the product, with appropriate
fiber length, fineness, and other properties to ensure the best product characteristics.
Wool is a "green material", in that it is readily recycled. Recycling
or reprocessing tends to reduce fiber lengths, and mixes wools of various types
and origins, giving a wool with generally shorter fibers producing yarns of
lower strength. Reprocessed wools are often mixed with nylon to bring up the
strength, but this reduces the amount of wool and so the advantages gained by
using wool. Thus new wool is the clear choice, and pure new wool, or 100% new
wool, is the usual choice for the best quality garments. The main exception
to using just wool is for socks. Socks wear unevenly, the toe and heel wearing
much faster than other parts. Thus in socks the preference is usually to add
a proportion of nylon to the new wool to counter excessive wear on the heel
Islender Sweater - The Islender
sweater by Devold, originally developed in the mid-1800's was the sweater of
choice of the early Arctic and Antarctic explorers. The Islender is knitted
from a woolen yarn to give a thick bulky fabric with a lot of insulating air
space. The sweater fits on the body, but by virtue of the elasticity of the
wool and the give in the knitted fabric is not at all constraining. This bulky
knit sweater is very warm, but benefits from layering under a wind and water
resistant jacket or coat when the weather turns rainy or the wind howls.
Devold Marine Sweaters and
Filson Sweaters -
These sweaters are knitted from worsted yarns, with a tight smooth knit. The
smooth surface turns most of the rain, and the tight dense fabric resists wind.
The wool absorbs moisture from perspiration or rain on the inside, keeping the
body from getting clammy, moving the moisture to the outside. The fine air spaces
in the sweater provide significant insulation, although less than in the Islender.
These sweaters are practical for heavy outdoor use without other rain gear,
and with their smooth surfaces which do not readily snag, for work sweaters.
The Marine sweaters have a very fine yarn and an unusually tight knit, presenting
a very high development of the style. This type of sweater has been used for
many years by the fishermen and seamen on the coasts of North West Europe, from
Brittany around Britain to Norway.
All Wool Sweaters
Wool Underwear -
We offer two types of wool underwear, a thicker type knitted from an 80% wool/20% nylon yarn,
the black underwear from Stanfield's,
and a thinner type knitted from a 100% worsted Merino wool yarn from Filson. Each uses a fine
soft wool for comfort, and either gives the reliable warmth of wool, keeping
the skin dry, and providing warmth even when the wool gets wet. In layering
against cold, the most effective layer is the first layer of wool underwear.
The Aquaduct Zip Polo by Devold, made from 95% Merino wool/5% nylon, is a lightweight garment knitted in two layers which can be worn either as an inner layer or lightweight sweater.
- Filson's Mackinaw jackets and trousers show good wind and rain resistance
coupled with good insulation. The cloth is shrunk about 25% during fulling,
giving a partially felted cloth that is more dense than the original cloth and
much stronger. Filson's double construction in their cruiser jackets enhances
the resistance to rain and wind, as well as increasing the insulation and comfort
of these jackets. Filson Mackinaw wool is noted for its long wearing qualities.
The warmth of the Mackinaw wool can also be enjoyed with Filson's Mackinaw
Wool Blanket and Lap Robe.
Whipcord Trousers - Filson's
whipcord trousers with a tight weave in a worsted yarn have a broad comfort
range in temperature, resist rain and wind effectively, and wear extremely well.
The worsted wool fabric used in the trousers is relatively thin, making them
very comfortable, but with the strength and elasticity of the wool maintain
their appearance and qualities under difficult conditions. The whipcord fabric is also used in Filson's Whipcord Weekender Jacket.
Wool Socks - We offer wool socks from
J.B. Fields, Filson
and Devold. Foot comfort is essential in any extended
outdoor activity. Wool socks provide warmth, and most importantly, keep the
skin on the feet from getting wet and clammy. The natural resilience of the
wool provides cushioning against point pressure, helping to reduce problems
such as blisters. Socks are subject to more abrasion and wear than most clothing,
and synthetic material such as nylon or lycra is often blended with wool to
reinforce the sock yarn. Modern spinning and knitting techniques enable these
blended yarns to not compromise the quality or comfort of the socks. For instance,
the inside of the Filson socks is formed of loops of merino yarn as a terry
cloth surface for comfort. The Devold
Hunting Socks are unusually dense for wool socks, for excellent cushioning.
All Wool Socks
Qiviut - The qiviut or musk ox wool accessories we
offer are made from the soft underfur of the musk ox. The fibers are very long
and when made into textiles the wool is about eight times as warm as sheep's
wool. Qiviut textiles do not shrink when washed, as the wool does not have the
felting properties of sheep's wool. Qiviut is an outstanding example of a wool
developed naturally to withstand extreme conditions that can be knitted into
scarves and caps making full use of the highly developed properties of an unusual
All Qiviut Woolens
Possum - Lothlorian is a New Zealand company offering a range of possum/Merino woolens, designed and crafted in their specialised knitting plant located on the outskirts of Aukland. The blended yarn is 40% New Zealand possum fur, 50% Merino wool and 10% nylon to stablize and strengthen the yarn. The unique soft pointed ends and hollow core of possum fur, combined with the Merino wool provide an extremely light, soft and luxurious fiber.
All Possum/Wool Items
Cashmere - Cashmere wool is the undercoat of Cashmere goats. This fine fiber provides natural, lightweight insulation without bulk. Cashmere goats produce a double fleece with the undercoat having very fine (around 15 mm diameter) fibers. The wool is either shorn from the goats or combed during the spring moulting, after which the soft undercoat is mechanically separated from the coarse outer coat or guard hairs. The resulting qualtiy of the cashmere will depend on the purity, length of fibers and color. High quality cashmere has long been a preferred fiber for the finest scarves, such as the Begg Cashmere Scarf, woven from Scottish cashmere.
Discover the Warmth of Wool! Enjoy the quality, durability and practicality
of the woolens we offer.